Table of Contents

Preface v

1. Introduction: making meaning of sports 1

National sport and the gaze 3
Culture and national narratives 5
Bourdieu and sport 8
Sport and cultural capital 11
Outline of study 13

I Cultural theory as martial arts: a toolbox for cultural analysis 19

2. Signification: mediation and sites of meaning 25

The mirror theory 27
Dualisms in representation 30
Play of signification 32
The encoding/decoding-model 35
The body as a site of communication 39

3. Bourdieu, discourse, sport: concepts and methods 41

The practice of knowing 43
Discipline 46
Discourse and articulation 49
Subject positions 54
Fields, dispositions and the habitus 56
Symbolic capital 60
Naturalisation, dressage and illusio 61
The subject 64
Case: Reading the referee 71
Rôle perception 74
Reformulating the refereeing subject 79

4. Nationalisms: theory and actuality 83

Nationalism, articulation and narrative 86
Social antagonism, language and time 89
Three typologies of nationalism 91
South Africa: before and beyond 1994 96
Apartheid 98
Beyond 1994 102

II The body of sport: producing nature, practicing nations 109

5. Nations at sport: the epic body 113

The epic body 115
Cognitivism and discourse 121
Discursive production of biological sex 125
Discursive production of masculinity 128
Effeminate bodies 131

6. Case: South Africa in the 1998 Football World Cup 137

Epic tradition 139
Individual values 142
Questions of autonomy 144
‘Race’ and gender 146

7. National, authentic, excessive: toward a globalised body of sports 153

School sports: a Physical Education curriculum 155
Elite events: beyond the national body 161
The excessive body 163

III Beyond the couch: truth and silence 169

8. Dressage and illusio: desire and spectacular sport 173

The excessive body 175
Phantasms 178
Containing desire 180

9. The limits of Bourdieu: a passive subject? 185

The space of sports 187
Struggle over definitions 190
Unofficial pleasures 195
Silent language 197

Conclusion: The national sports imaginary 199

Notes 211
Bibliography 213

Appendix: Key concepts and arguments 225

Relative cultural autonomy 225
Kinds of knowledges 226
Silent belief 226
Messianic time and the time of the nation 227
The epic body of nationalism 228
A new ‘authentic’ body of globalised sport 228
Illusio and desire in spectacular sports 229
A passive spectator? 229

List of acronyms 231
List of figures 233
Full table of contents 235

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